In this article, we will build an understanding of Merkle Trees and their applications. What is a Merkle Tree? A Merkle Tree is a data structure that makes it efficient to verify the integrity of a collection of data. These data structures are used i...

How do we store and query large spatial datasets? Here, we will build our understanding of the mathematical foundations of the Bing Tile System. To store large spatial datasets, we can divide them into usable sections (“tiles”) and assign them a uniq...

How does a hashing algorithm actually work? And what makes it secure? In this article, we will look at an implementation of SHA-1 (Secure Hashing Algorithm 1) in Python and discuss each step used to create a hash digest. While there is plenty of inf...

A quick reference for bitwise operators. These operators define the way that computers rearrange bits to perform calculations and represent data. Bitwise operators are supported directly by computer processors to perform calculations and store inform...

Here, we will dive into binary and its default representation: hexadecimal. Binary is the core numeral system used in computers. To do anything, your data or lines of code must be transformed into binary. It is binary that interfaces directly with yo...